Pain and swelling of the hip and knee joint are frequently signs and symptoms of arthritis. Progressive destruction of these joints may lead to the need for hip or knee replacement. These symptoms may also be signs of fracture, especially in those with osteoporosis or recent injuries.

Spinal Stenosis, ruptured discs and spondylolisthesis all can lead to nerve compression. This may produce pain, numbness and tingling in the hip, knee or the entire leg. Treatment by spinal surgeons may become necessary. Recent advances with lumbar artificial discs may be helpful to some.

Burning pain and numbness in the feet and legs may occur with different forms of peripheral neuropathy. These conditions can be seen with chemotherapy and diabetes. Chronic pain syndromes, including reflex sympathetic dystrophy, may be treated with medical therapy by pain management doctors and hematologists. Surgeons may implants dorsal column stimulators or pain pumps to help control the problems.

Hot red joints may occur from infection, gout or pseudogout. They are usually treated with medications, although surgical intervention may be needed.

Swelling and pain in the calf may be a sign of deep vein thrombosis. If not recognized, clots may break off and spread to the lungs, producing pulmonary emboli.

Excessive sweating in the legs may be a sign of over activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Surgical division of these fibers by vascular and cardiac surgeons may be needed.

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